What is GAD?

– GAD is a development perspective that recognizes that there are BLOCKS (Gender Biases) to developments that prevents people from attaining their full potentials.

What is gender equality?

– Means the right, responsibilities and opportunities or individuals will not depend on whether they are born male or female.

What on GAD Mainstreaming?

– A STRATEGY to integrate the Gender and Development (GAD) perspective in the development agenda, processes, structures, policies, programs and projects to promote women’s empowerment and bring about gender equality.

What is sex?

  • Biological attributes of women and men
  • Natural
  • Determined by birth
  • Generally unchanging and universal

What is gender?

  • Socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men
  • Cultures specific
  • Change over time
  • Define how women and men are expected

What are the biological differences between men and women?

  • Men

–    Have no developed uterus and cannot become pregnant or give birth to children

–    Have a penis

–    Have under developed breasts

–    Grow a beard

  • Women

–    Have a developed uterus and can become pregnant and give birth to children

–    Have a vagina

–    Have developed breasts

–    Do not grow a beard

What is SOGIE?

– Sexual Orientation Gender Identity and Expression

Who have SOGIE?

– All People have SOGIE, SOGIE of each person is different from each other and shall be respected.

What are the roles of sex and gender?

– A sex role is a function which a male or female assumes because of the basic physiological or anatomical differences between the sexes.

– A gender role refers to society’s evaluation of behaviour as masculine or feminine.

What are the differences between sex roles and gender roles?


–    May differ from society

–    Can change with history

–    Can be performed by both sexes

–    They are socially culturally determined


–    Same in all societies: they are universal

–    Never change with history

–    Can be performed by only one of the sexes

–    That are biologically determined

What are the gender biases?

– Cultural beliefs, perceptions, practices, values, roles, attitudes and structural arrangements that favor one sex over the other.

What are the gender issues?

– Pertains to beliefs, ideas, attitudes, behavior, systems and other factors that block people’s capacity to do and to be.

What are the gender biases against men?

– Inherently aggressive and violent

– Don’t feel pain or incapable of experiencing human relations

– Inherently aggressive in their sexuality

– Don’t need closeness, reassurance and attention

What are the manifestations of gender biases?

  • Marginalization
  • Subordination
  • Gender Stereotyping
  • Multiple Burden
  • Violence Against Women

What is Gender Mainstreaming Evaluation Framework (GMEF)?

– A framework that show how agencies have moved forward, stepped backward or remained basically in the same stage as they go about their mainstreaming effort.

What is Harmonized Gender Development Guidelines (HGDG)?

– Ensure the gender-responsiveness of programs and projects in the various stages of the project cycle.

What is the International Mandates for Gender Mainstreaming?

UN-CEDAW – Promote equality in all fields; affirmative action for women; and protection of women from violence.


Gender-Based Violence Referral System

What is the PA Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Referral System?

– It is a cooperative framework that guides the PA Units/Offices working together within  a cooperative network in order to coordinate their efforts in a strategic partnership for the protection and provision of comprehensive services to clients of gender-based violence and their families

the system ensures the following:

  • Expeditious access to needed services
  • Confidentiality of personal information
  • Efficient documentation and monitoring of cases
  • Referral and feedback systems
  • Establishment of a feedback systems
  • Identification of gaps and improvement of services within the Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Referral Network

What are the legal bases in establishing the PA GBV Referral System?

  • UN Convention in the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (UN CEDAW)
  • Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (DEVAW)
  • Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
  • RA 9710 (Magna Carta of Women)
  • RA 9262 (Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act)
  • RA 7610 (Child Abuse Law)
  • RA 7877 (Anti-Sexual Harassment Act)
  • RA 8353 (Anti-Rape Law)
  • RA 9208 (Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act)

What are the objectives of the Philippine Army in establishing the PA GBV Referral System?

  • To Provide its stakeholders an institutionalized gender-sensitive standard operating procedure in managing and handling GBV cases.
  • To ensure timely and systematic delivery of comprehensive programs and services to victims of gender-based violence.

What are the cases to be facilitated under the referral system?

  • Domestic-related cases involving legally married couples such as but not limited to: physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence and economic abuse.
  • Non-domestic related cases involving individuals with or without intimate relationship such as but not limited to: abandonment filed by unmarried intimate partner, child abuse, sexual harassment, acts of lasciviousness and other asexually-related offenses.

Who may be the victims of gender-based violence?

  • Philippine Army personnel
  • Dependents of Philippine Army personnel
  • Civilians outside the Philippine Army organization

Who are the perpetrator that could avail programs and services under the PA GBV Referral System?

– Philippine Army personnel, whether uniformed or civilian personnel.

Who can report the incidents of gender-based violence?

  • Victims.
  • Third person who has knowledge of the commission of gender-based violence.

What are the programs and services available to the victims of gender-based violence?

  • Psycho-social services such as but not limited to individual counselling, psycho-therapy sessions and family counselling. It aims to assist the victims regain and develop their coping mechanisms, and gain self-worth.
  • Medical services such as but not limited to medical exams and treatment, psychological and other services addressing the medical needs of the victims.
  • Spiritual services such as but not limited to spiritual guidance, marital counselling, family building sessions and character development activities that aim to help the victims regain their positive self-concept.
  • Legal services such as but not limited to legal counselling, free preparation of legal documents and free notary to ensure that the clients are apprised with appropriate legal remedies. It also aim lessens the financial cost of preparing legal documenting if needed.
  • Safety and security of the clients living within the camp premises.